Recents in Beach

The use of capital letters

Capital letters or we can also call them upper case letters look like that:

Ther are taller and wider

and the small letter or the lower case letters look like that:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
They are smaller and less wide

As we know, in English, most of the time we write with lower case letters and we use upper case letters for specific situations. As a general rule, since the capital letters are bigger, then we use them to contrast with the small letters. We do that when a word is very important so that we can see it more easily. In this lesson, you will learn the most common rules for when to use capital letters.

How to know who to capitalise a word

The first letter of a sentence or speech

My friend was in a hurry. He said, "I am late for school, sorry!"

(Note: One always marks the pronoun " I " with a capital letter)

Names and titles of persons

Winston Churchill, Queen of England, President of the United States, Sergeant Smith...

Example: My teacher is called Mr. Teller

(Note: Notice that the first letters of both the title "Mr" and the name "Teller" are capitalized)

Titles of books, articles, films, songs, poems...

'War and Peace', 'The Merchant of Venice', 'Crime and Punishment'

Titles do not follow grammar rules. They follow style guides. So they are less strict, they are not really grammar rules but they are preferences.
Here is a style guide used by many English journalists for writing titles:

  • Use capitals for the first letter of the first word, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs.
  • Use lower case for the first letter of : a, and, at, from, in, of, for, on, the, to (exept if it is the first word)

Example: Steven's favourite book is "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"

The months of the year

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December

Example: Some cities in Morocco are very hot in August

(Note: seasons are not capitalized: spring, summer, autumn, winter)

The days of the week

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday

Example:  They watched a Harry Potter movie last Thursday

Holidays and festivals

Christmas, Ramadan, Easter, New Year, Thanksgiving and many others

Example: They are very excited about Christmas


Catholic, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and others

Example: Christianity is one of the religions in England

Names of companies, trademarks, and organizations

Microsoft, Google, Ford, Zara, Coca Cola...

Example: I love Volkswagen cars

Abbreviations and acronyms

USA (United States of America), UN (United Nations)

Example: UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) aims to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development, and intercultural dialogue.

Countries, nationalities, and languages

Countries: England, Morocco, Russia, Brazil...

Nationalities: English, Moroccan, Russian, Brazilian...

Languages: English, Arabic, Russian, Portuguese

Example: Tom is going to France to learn French.

Geographical divisions

Regions and states...

Sussex, California, Queensland...

Example: The biggest state in America is Texas

Names of cities and villages...

London, Rabat, Rome, Paris...

Example: I intend to visit Paris this summer


Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America

Example: Nigeria is a country in Africa

Rivers, oceans, lakes, mountains...

The Atlantic, Lake Leman, the Rhine, the Thames, the Himalayas, the Sahara...

Example: This river is called the River Thames

(Note: Notice that the word river is just a normal noun so if use the word river when it is not the name or the title of a river then it is just a normal small letter. so it is only a capital letter when it forms a part of the name)

Street names, buildings, parks ...

Park Lane, Central Avenue, Pall Mall...

Example: George works as a healthcare investment banker in Wall Street

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