Recents in Beach

How to express addition and contrast

In this lesson, we'll look specifically at transitions to join similar, supporting ideas, or contrast between them.


|How to express addition and contrast ||



One of the most important tools for creating good flow in writing is the transition. Transitions are the bridges that allow a reader to move from one idea to the next without getting lost in the language.

In this lesson, we'll look specifically at transitions to join similar, supporting ideas, or contrast between them.

In addition, moreover, etc (X and Y)



When you add a second piece of information in a sentence to support the first piece of information, you often use and.


— The food is excellent and very good value.


When you put this information in two sentences, these link words and phrases are common: Furthermore, In addition, also, as well, too...


— The food is usually very good. Furthermore, it is one of the cheapest restaurants in town.

— The set menu is $10, which is excellent value. In addition, you get a free glass of wine.

— The restaurant has a reputation for excellent food. It's also very good value.

— The food is excellent in that restaurant. It's very good value as well (or too).

— You get very good food in that place. What's more, it's excellent value.

Note: The first two examples are more formal and more common in written English. The
last two examples are more common in spoken English.

Although, in spite of, etc. (X but Y)



When you want to contrast two pieces of information in a single sentence and say that the second fact is surprising after the first, you can use these link words: Although, though, even though, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that..


— She still won the game although / though / even though she had a bad knee.

— They still went for a walk in spite of the fact that it was pouring with rain.

— The service is worse despite the fact that they have more staff.

Note: In these examples you can also begin the sentence with the link word:

Although she had a bad knee, she still won the game.


It is very common to use still in these sentences to emphasise the surprise (as in examples). In the last two example sentences you can use a noun ( read more about Nouns) or -ing form.


— They went for a walk in spite of the rain.

— The service is worse despite having more staff.


After although, you can only have a noun/pronoun + verb.


— Although she had a bad knee / her knee was bad).

Whereas



This word is used to connect a fact or opinion  (read more about how to express opinions) about a person, place or thing, with something different about another person, place or thing (you can also use whilst). In other words, the second fact is a contrast with the first, but not always a surprise (as in the examples above).


— John is very careful whereas Christopher makes lots of mistakes.

— The south is hot and dry whereas the north gets quite a lot of rain.

However



You can use however to contrast two ideas in two sentences, and say that the second sentence is surprising after the first; and you can use however or on the other hand to make a contrast between different people/places or things.

I don't agree with a lot of his methods. However, he is a good teacher.

We didn't like the hotel at all. However, we still enjoyed ourselves.

Marcel thought it was a great film. Joe, however / on the other hand, thought it was stupid.

Most big cats, such as tigers and leopards, are very solitary creatures. Lions, however / on the other hand, spend much of their time in groups.


Quiz


Test your knowledge now by passing the test below:


Bonus

These are videos presented by engVid youtube channel. The first video talks about the linking words: though, although, even though, despite, in spite of :


The second one teaches you how to use 'in addition', 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'another', and more.



Exercises



Cross out the incorrect answers. Both answers may be correct.



1. Although / in spite of we left late, we still got there in time.

2. It was a fantastic evening although / in spite of the terrible food.

3. We have decided to go in spite of / despite the cost of the tickets.

4. They enjoyed the course even though / whereas it was very difficult.

5. I love the sea furthermore / whereas most of my friends prefer the mountains.

6. We found a lovely villa near the lake that we can rent. In addition / Moreover it has its own swimming pool, and we have free use of a car provided by the owners.

7. We both told John the car was too expensive. However / On the other hand, he still decided to buy it.

8. Most people we met tried to help us. They were very friendly too / as well.

9. During the week the town centre is very busy. At the weekend on the other hand / whereas, it is very quiet and almost empty.

10. My uncle is the owner of the factory opposite. He also / however runs the restaurant next door and the car hire company down the road.


Fill the gaps with a suitable link word or phrase.



1. ..................................... taking a map, they still got lost.

2. It took me two hours to do it ..................................... the others finished in less than an hour.

3. The hotel has a very good reputation..................................... , it is one of the cheapest in the area.

4. She managed to get there..................................... she had a broken ankle.

5. It's not the best dictionary you can buy;..................................... , it's better than nothing.

6. She's younger than the others in the group, and she's better than most of them..................................


Complete these sentences in a logical way.



1. I was able to follow what she was saying even though .....................................

2. I was able to follow what she was saying whereas.....................................

3. We enjoyed the holiday in spite of.....................................

4. If you buy a season ticket, you can go as often as you like. Furthermore, .....................................

5. The exam was very difficult. However,.....................................

6. Although it was a very long film,.....................................


Answer the questions and test yourself on these different link words and phrases.



1. Write down all the link words and phrases from the opposite page that you can remember.

2. Organise them into groups according to their meaning.

3. Write your own examples for each one and keep them on one page in your notebook. In future, you can add more examples as you meet them.

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